# 5 5 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis In Planning Managerial Accounting The contribution margin is the amount by which revenue exceeds the variable costs of producing that revenue. On a per unit basis, the contribution margin for Video Productions is \$8 (the selling price of \$20 minus the variable cost per unit of \$ 12). It represents the incremental money generated for each product/unit sold after deducting the variable portion of the firm’s costs. Basically, it shows the portion of sales that helps to cover the company’s fixed costs.

• Semi-variable expenses must be split between expense classifications using the high-low method, scatter plot, or statistical regression.
• A careful and accurate cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis requires knowledge of costs and their fixed or variable behavior as volume changes.
• Managerial accounting provides useful tools, such as cost-volume-profit relationships, to aid decision-making.
• The unit contribution margin is simply the remainder after the unit variable cost is subtracted from the unit sales price.

It can also answer what if type of questions by telling the volume required to produce. This concept is relevant in all decision making areas, particularly in the short run. This is the level of sales where the company will not incur a loss, yet not make a profit.

## How to Calculate the Break Even Price

Contribution margin is the amount remaining from sales revenue after variable expenses have been deducted. While the contribution margin is used as an intermediate calculation in many CVP analyses, this metric can provide information by itself. After the break-even point is reached, the contribution margin ratio tells management how much each dollar contributes to the company’s profit. Total revenue is \$ 120,000 for sales of 6,000 tapes (\$ 20 per unit X 6,000 units sold). In the chart, we demonstrate the effect of volume on revenue, costs, and net income, for a particular price, variable cost per unit, and fixed cost per period. The first step in calculating the margin of safety is to calculate the break-even point in sales dollars. Cost volume profit relationship helps you understand different ways to meet your company’s net income goals. Target profit analysis is concerned with estimating the level of sales required to attain a specified target profit. Break-even analysis is a special case of target profit analysis in which the target profit is zero. In simple words, CVP is a management accounting tool that expresses relationship among total sales, total cost and profit. Cost Volume-Profit relationship is one of the important techniques of cost and management accounting. It is a powerful tool which furnishes the complete picture of the profit structure and helps in planning of profits.

## How Is Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis Used?

CVP analysis makes several assumptions, including that the sales price, fixed and variable costs per unit are constant. Running a CVP analysis involves using several equations for price, cost, and other variables, which it then plots out on an economic graph. It can also be defined as the point where total sales equals total expenses or as the point where total contribution margin equals total fixed expenses. Break-even analysis can be approached either by the equation method or by the contribution margin method. The CVP chart above shows cost data for Video Productions in a relevant range of output from 500 to 10,000 units.

The illustration shows a cost-volume-profit chart for Video Productions, a company that produces DVDs. The variable cost per DVD is \$12, and the fixed costs per month are \$ 40,000. Managerial accounting provides useful tools, such as cost-volume-profit relationships, to aid decision-making.

## How to Create a Break Even Analysis

Recall the relevant range is the range of production or sales volume over which the basic cost behavior assumptions hold true. For volumes outside these ranges, costs behave differently and alter the assumed relationships. In either case, the assumed cost relationships would no longer be valid. Profit may be added to the fixed costs to perform CVP analysis on the desired outcome.

All units produced are assumed to be sold, and all fixed costs must be stable in CVP analysis. The contribution margin is used to determine the breakeven point of sales. By dividing the total fixed costs by the contribution margin ratio, the breakeven point of sales in terms of total dollars may be calculated. For example, a company with \$100,000 of fixed costs and a contribution margin of 40% must earn revenue of \$250,000 to break even.

## Similar to Cost volume and profit relationship(

All units produced are assumed to be sold, and all fixed costs must be stable. Another assumption is all changes in expenses occur because of changes in activity level. Semi-variable expenses must be split between expense classifications using the high-low method, scatter plot, or statistical regression. Break-even analysis, a subset of cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis, is used by management to help understand the relationships between cost, sales volume and profit. This techniques focuses on how selling prices, sales volume, variable costs, fixed costs and the mix of product sold affects profit.