# What is Fixed Overhead Volume Variance?

The fixed overhead volume variance is the difference between the amount of fixed overhead actually applied to produced goods based on production volume, and the amount that was budgeted to be applied to produced goods. This variance is reviewed as part of the period-end cost accounting reporting package. The fixed overhead production volume variance is favorable because the company produced and sold more units than anticipated. Fixed overhead volume variance is the difference between the amount budgeted for fixed overhead costs based on production volume and the amount that is eventually absorbed.

Fixed overhead efficiency variance is the difference between absorbed fixed production overheads attributable to the change in the manufacturing efficiency during a period. Fixed overhead capacity variance is the difference between absorbed fixed production overheads attributable to the change in number of manufacturing hours, compared to what was budgeted. As fixed costs are not absorbed under marginal costing system, fixed overhead volume variance (and its sub-variances) are to be calculated only when absorption costing is applied.

## 8 Fixed Manufacturing Overhead Variance Analysis

In conclusion, Fixed Overhead Volume Variance is crucial for cost management and decision-making. It provides valuable insights into the efficiency of a company in managing its fixed overhead costs and helps make informed decisions regarding production levels. By understanding the concept of FOVV and its importance, businesses can make informed decisions that positively impact their profitability and competitiveness.

• For example, if the workforce utilized fewer manufacturing hours during a period than the standard, it is hard to imagine a significant benefit of calculating a favorable fixed overhead efficiency variance.
• Fixed overhead volume variance is the difference between fixed overhead applied to production for a given accounting period and the total fixed overheads budgeted for the period.
• Examples of fixed overhead costs are factory rent, equipment depreciation, the salaries of production supervisors and support staff, the insurance on production facilities, and utilities.
• When calculated using the formula above, a positive fixed overhead volume variance is favorable.
• A company budgets for the allocation of \$25,000 of fixed overhead costs to produced goods at the rate of \$50 per unit produced, with the expectation that 500 units will be produced.

Because fixed overhead costs are not typically driven by activity, Jerry’s cannot attribute any part of this variance to the efficient (or inefficient) use of labor. Instead, Jerry’s must review the detail of actual and budgeted costs to determine why the favorable variance occurred. For example, factory rent, supervisor salaries, or factory insurance may have been lower than anticipated. Further investigation of detailed costs is necessary to determine the exact cause of the fixed overhead spending variance. When the actual amount budgeted for fixed overhead costs based on production volume differs from the figure that is eventually absorbed, fixed overhead volume variance occurs.

## Comparison of Fixed and Variable Overhead Variances

Fixed Overhead Volume Variance is necessary in the preparation of operating statement under absorption costing as it removes the arithmetic duplication as discussed earlier. The variance is favorable because Motors PLC managed to operate more manufacturing hours than anticipated in the budget. The variance is adverse because Motors PLC utilized more manufacturing hours in the production of 275,000 units than the standard. This implies that the difference between budgeted and flexed fixed cost is included twice in the operating statement. Similarly, if the allocated volume is down to the number of machine hours and a company outsources some or all of its production, the budgeted amount of machine hours will be much less than expected.

• Instead, Jerry’s must review the detail of actual and budgeted costs to determine why the favorable variance occurred.
• Whereas, the input quantity is a suitable basis used to apply fixed overheads to production.
• This is because the units produced in such a case are more than the quantity expected from current production capacity and this reflects efficient use of fixed resources.
• If sales on a product are seasonal, production volumes on a monthly basis can fluctuate.
• In short, this variance is used as a balancing exercise when fixed overhead expenditure variance is calculated.
• Further investigation of detailed costs is necessary to determine the exact cause of the fixed overhead spending variance.

Fixed overhead volume variance occurs when the actual production volume differs from the budgeted production. In this way, it measures whether or not the fixed production resources have been efficiently utilized. Being fixed within a certain range of activity, fixed overhead costs are relatively easy to predict. Because of the simplicity of prediction, some companies create a fixed overhead allocation rate that they continue to use throughout the year. This allocation rate is the expected monthly amount of fixed overhead costs, divided by the number of units produced (or some similar measure of activity level).

## Planning and Budgeting

If production volume relies on the labor hours of workers and a company implements new efficient practices that reduce the number of hours needed to produce a product, more units will be made than budgeted. Fixed Overhead Volume Variance is the difference between the fixed production cost budgeted and the fixed production cost absorbed during the period. The variance arises due to a change in the level of output attained in a period compared to the budget. FOVV provides important information to managers in making decisions regarding production levels. It helps them understand the impact of changes in the production level on the fixed overhead costs, which in turn helps make informed decisions. It helps companies to identify the expected fixed overhead costs for a given level of production, which in turn helps in setting budgets and making informed decisions.

However, if a company is experiencing rapid changes in its production systems, it may need to revise its overhead allocation rate more frequently, say monthly. There are a number of reasons why this can happen, aside from simply poor forecasting. If sales on a product are seasonal, production volumes on a monthly basis can fluctuate.

## AccountingTools

In short, this variance is used as a balancing exercise when fixed overhead expenditure variance is calculated. Calculate the fixed overhead spending and production volume variances using the format shown in Figure 10.13 “Fixed Manufacturing Overhead Variance Analysis for Jerry’s Ice Cream”. Sales Quantity Variance already takes into account the change in budgeted fixed production overheads as a result of increase or decrease in sales quantity along with other expenses. When calculated using the formula above, a positive fixed overhead volume variance is favorable. Beside from its role as a balancing agent, fixed overhead volume variance does not offer more information from what can be ascertained from other variances such as sales quantity variance.